Research cluster: Returns on Tertiary Education

Start of the project: 2017-Feb-17

The research cluster examines the potential benefits of tertiary or higher education. Benefits can be analysed on two different levels: the social or collective level and the individual level. The literature discusses two types of returns on education on each of these levels: labour market-related returns (typically monetary returns) and returns gained outside the labour market (typically non-monetary returns such as well-being, and social or political participation). The research cluster focuses on individual returns to a certain extent but proposes widening its focus to include collective returns, and a multi-level perspective.

While there is a great deal of literature in the field of economics analysing monetary returns, there is less on non-monetary returns. Sophisticated research on the latter requires an interdisciplinary approach comprising economics, sociology, psychology, empirical educational research and pedagogics.

The research cluster considers differences in a variety of dimensions: vertical and horizontal differences in education, differences in life trajectories, heterogeneous effects between social groups, and international comparisons. Besides examining questions on the existence and quantity of returns on education, we are interested in the mechanism underlying returns. Such insights lead to evidence-based policy implications.

Other topics addressed by the research cluster include the conceptualisation, operationalisation, and causal analysis of returns on tertiary education. It supports the continuous enhancement of the DZHW survey programme, and contributes to networking with researchers in other research institutions and universities.

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Publications

More or less the same? An exploration of the evolution of the PhD wage premium in a decade of higher education expansion.

Euler, T., & Trennt, F. (2024).
More or less the same? An exploration of the evolution of the PhD wage premium in a decade of higher education expansion. Soziale Welt - Special Edition 26, 55-88. https://doi.org/10.5771/9783748925590-55

Who are the bachelors? – Capturing degree heterogeneity within the tertiary level in comparative perspective.

Sauer, P., & Schwabe (2023).
Who are the bachelors? – Capturing degree heterogeneity within the tertiary level in comparative perspective. 2023 (25). Esch-Belval, Luxembourg: LIS Newsletter Inequality Matters.

Übergänge von Lehramtsabsolventinnen und -absolventen: Wer bleibt im ersten Jahr nach Studienabschluss auf dem Weg zur Lehrkraft?

Franz, S., Gäckle, S., & Menge, C. (2023).
Übergänge von Lehramtsabsolventinnen und -absolventen: Wer bleibt im ersten Jahr nach Studienabschluss auf dem Weg zur Lehrkraft? In J. Ordemann, F. Peter, & S. Buchholz (Hrsg.), Vielfalt von hochschulischen Bildungsverläufen. Wiesbaden: Springer. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-658-39657-2_8
Abstract

The aim of this paper is to investigate career paths within the first 12 months after graduating with a teaching degree (master or first state examination) in an exploratory manner. Based on the panel data of teacher education students from the German National Education Panel (NEPS) Starting Cohort 5, we find that 66 % of the observed sample (N = 2,302) transition to preparatory service within the first 12 months after graduation. Another 14 % take the direct route into the teaching profession, while 20 % pursue an occupation not (directly) related to teaching. Significant differences between these groups are found, for example, in terms of gender distribution, field of study, and final grades.

The role of overeducation and horizontal mismatch for gender inequalities in labor income of higher education graduates in Europe.

Passaretta, G., Sauer, P., Schwabe, & Weßling, K. (2023).
The role of overeducation and horizontal mismatch for gender inequalities in labor income of higher education graduates in Europe. Research in Comparative and International Education, 18(1), 123-146. https://doi.org/10.1177/17454999231158042

Stability or change? Social inequality at the transition from bachelor’s to master’s degree programmes in Germany. Empirical evidence from four graduate cohorts.

Reimer, D., & Schwabe (2022).
Stability or change? Social inequality at the transition from bachelor’s to master’s degree programmes in Germany. Empirical evidence from four graduate cohorts. European Educational Research Journal, 22(2), 170-197. https://doi.org/10.1177/14749041221101293

Does the effect of studying abroad on labour income vary by graduates’ social origin? Evidence from Germany.

Netz, N., & Grüttner, M. (2021).
Does the effect of studying abroad on labour income vary by graduates’ social origin? Evidence from Germany. Higher Education, 82(6), 1195-1217. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10734-020-00579-2
Abstract

Studying abroad can positively influence students’ personality development, transversal skills, and labour market outcomes. At the same time, students from a high social origin are more likely to study abroad than students from a low social origin. Against this background, recent research has suggested that international student mobility (ISM) may foster the reproduction of social inequality. However, this assumption has hardly been tested empirically. Drawing on social stratification theory, we first demonstrate that a scenario in which ISM increases social inequality (cumulative advantage) is as plausible as a scenario in which it decreases social inequality (compensatory levelling).

Belonging as a Resource of Resilience: Psychological Wellbeing of International and Refugee Students in Study Preparation at German Higher Education Institutions.

Grüttner, M. (2019).
Belonging as a Resource of Resilience: Psychological Wellbeing of International and Refugee Students in Study Preparation at German Higher Education Institutions. Student Success, 10(3), 36-44. https://doi.org/10.5204/ssj.v10i3.1275

Bildungserträge und soziale Ungleichheit.

Grüttner, M., & Carstensen, J. (Hrsg.) (2018).
Bildungserträge und soziale Ungleichheit. Sozialer Fortschritt (Sonderheft), 67(4), 227-325. https://doi.org/10.3790/sfo.67.4.227

Nicht-monetäre Bildungserträge und soziale Ungleichheit.

Carstensen, J., & Grüttner, M. (2018).
Nicht-monetäre Bildungserträge und soziale Ungleichheit. Sozialer Fortschritt, 67(4), 229-248. https://doi.org/10.3790/sfo.67.4.229
Presentations

How did Bologna Reforms Affect Returns to Higher Education? - New Comparative Evidence using LIS Data.

Sauer, P., & Schwabe, U. (2023, September).
How did Bologna Reforms Affect Returns to Higher Education? - New Comparative Evidence using LIS Data. Vortrag auf der Konferenz "Income and Wealth Inequality: Drivers and Consequences", Luxembourg Income Study (LIS) & Gdańsk University of Technology, Gdansk, Poland.

How did Bologna Reforms Affect Returns to Higher Education? - New Comparative Evidence using LIS Data.

Sauer, P., & Schwabe, U. (2023, September).
How did Bologna Reforms Affect Returns to Higher Education? - New Comparative Evidence using LIS Data. Vortrag auf dem Workshop "Unequal Graduate Outcomes: International Perspectives over the Long-Term", The Centre for Global Higher Education (CGHE), University College London (UCL), London, Großbritannien.

Soziale Selektivität beim Hochschulzugang: Alles beim Alten?

Kracke, N., Schwabe, U., & Buchholz, S. (2023, September).
Soziale Selektivität beim Hochschulzugang: Alles beim Alten? Vortrag im Rahmen der BMBF-Tagung "Vielfalt und Chancengerechtigkeit in Studium und Wissenschaft - bekannte Fragen, bessere Antworten, bewährte Praxisansätze", Bundesministerium für Bildung und Forschung (BMBF), Berlin.

Graduates’ early wages in Germany: Does a university’s status of excellence make the difference?

Lang, S., & Schwabe, U. (2023, Mai).
Graduates’ early wages in Germany: Does a university’s status of excellence make the difference? Poster im Rahmen des DZHW Forschungstags 2023, Hannover.

Graduates’ early wages in Germany: Does a university’s status of excellence make the difference?

Lang, S., & Schwabe, U. (2023, März).
Graduates’ early wages in Germany: Does a university’s status of excellence make the difference? Poster auf der Konferenz 9. Konferenz für Sozial- und Wirtschaftsdaten, Berlin.

Individuelle und äußere Einflussfaktoren auf das Wohlbefinden angehender Lehrkräfte.

Gäckle, S., Menge, C., & Ortenburger, A. (2023, Februar/März).
Individuelle und äußere Einflussfaktoren auf das Wohlbefinden angehender Lehrkräfte. Vortrag auf der Tagung Bildung zwischen Unsicherheit und Evidenz, GEBF, Essen.

Unsicherheiten im professionellen Handeln? Lehrkräfte im Quer- und Seiteneinstieg im Vergleich.

Ortenburger, A., Gäckle, S., & Menge, C. (2023, Februar/März).
Unsicherheiten im professionellen Handeln? Lehrkräfte im Quer- und Seiteneinstieg im Vergleich. Vortrag auf der Tagung Bildung zwischen Unsicherheit und Evidenz, GEBF, Essen.

Erträge hochschulischer Bildung.

Ordemann, J. (2022, November).
Erträge hochschulischer Bildung. Vortrag auf dem Kolloquium Forschungskolloquium 11 | 2022, Leibniz Forschungszentrums Wissenschaft und Gesellschaft (LCSS), Hannover, Deutschland.

Arbeits- und Beschäftigungsbedingungen innerhalb und außerhalb der Wissenschaft: Ergebnisse mit DZHW-Absolventendaten.

Euler, T., & Schwabe, U. (2022, November).
Arbeits- und Beschäftigungsbedingungen innerhalb und außerhalb der Wissenschaft: Ergebnisse mit DZHW-Absolventendaten. Impulsvortrag in der Sitzung des Wissenschaftlichen Beirats, DZHW Hannover, Hannover.

Arbeits- und Beschäftigungsbedingungen innerhalb und außerhalb der Wissenschaft: Ergebnisse mit DZHW-Absolventendaten.

Euler, T., & Schwabe, U. (2022, Oktober).
Arbeits- und Beschäftigungsbedingungen innerhalb und außerhalb der Wissenschaft: Ergebnisse mit DZHW-Absolventendaten. Impulsvortrag auf der Hausmesse Beschäftigungssituation in der Wissenschaft, DZHW Hannover, Hannover (online).

Individual and External Factors Influencing the Well-Being of Prospective Teachers.

Menge, C., Gäckle, S., & Ortenburger, A. (2022, September).
Individual and External Factors Influencing the Well-Being of Prospective Teachers. Vortrag im Rahmen der European Conference on Educational Research (ECER), Yerevan State University, Yerevan, Armenien.

Long-term Effects of the Learning Environment " Induction Phase " on Beginning Teachers`' Wellbeing. A Longitudinal Analysis.

Gäckle, S., & Menge, C. (2022, August).
Long-term Effects of the Learning Environment "Induction Phase" on Beginning Teachers`' Wellbeing. A Longitudinal Analysis. Vortrag auf der Konferenz 11th EARLI SIG14 Conference (EARLI Special Interest Group 14 "Learning and Professional Development"), Paderborn.

Gender inequality in monetary labour market outcomes of higher education graduates - The role of overeducation and horizontal mismatch.

Passaretta, G., Sauer, P., Schwabe, U., & Weßling, K. (2022, Juli).
Gender inequality in monetary labour market outcomes of higher education graduates - The role of overeducation and horizontal mismatch. Vortrag auf der Konferenz SASE Annual Conference 2022, Society for the Advancement of Socio-Economics, University of Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

Gender inequality in monetary labour market outcomes of higher education graduates - The role of overeducation and horizontal mismatch.

Passaretta, G., Sauer, P., Schwabe, U., & Weßling, K. (2022, Juli).
Gender inequality in monetary labour market outcomes of higher education graduates - The role of overeducation and horizontal mismatch. Vortrag auf der Konferenz ECSR Annual Conference 2022, European Consortium for Sociological Research, University of Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

Stratification in German Higher Education: Consequences of the German Initiative of Excellence and Rankings.

Lang, S., & Schwabe, U. (2022, Juni).
Stratification in German Higher Education: Consequences of the German Initiative of Excellence and Rankings. Vortrag im Rahmen der Changing Academic Careers II Lecture Series, DZHW, Hannover, Deutschland.

Long-term Effects of the Induction Phase on Beginning Teachers' Wellbeing. A Longitudinal Analysis.

Gäckle, S., & Menge, C. (2022, Juni).
Long-term Effects of the Induction Phase on Beginning Teachers' Wellbeing. A Longitudinal Analysis. Vortrag auf der Konferenz "Digital Transformation in Teaching and Teacher Education", EARLI SIG 11 Conference 2022, Oldenburg.

International Academics at German Universities: From Postdoc to Professorship? A Qualitative Research Study.

Jaudzims, S. (2022, Juni).
International Academics at German Universities: From Postdoc to Professorship? A Qualitative Research Study. Vortrag im Rahmen der Vortragsreihe „Changing Academic Careers II" , DZHW, Hannover.

Changing Academic Careers II Lecture Series.

Carstensen, J., Euler, T., Fabian, G., Gäckle, S., Goldan, L., ... & Schwabe, U. (2022, Juni/Juli).
Workshop Changing Academic Careers II Lecture Series, DZHW, Universität Würzburg, LCSS, Universität Hannover, Hannover (online).

Das Referendariat als Lernumwelt. Auswirkungen auf das (berufliche) Wohlbefinden angehender Lehrkräfte.

Gäckle, S. (2022, März).
Das Referendariat als Lernumwelt. Auswirkungen auf das (berufliche) Wohlbefinden angehender Lehrkräfte. Vortrag im Rahmen der 9. Jahrestagung der GEBF "Alles auf Anfang? Bildung im digitalen Wandel" , Leibniz-Institut für Bildungsverläufe (LIfBi), Bamberg.

Explaining employment sector choices of doctoral graduates in Germany.

Jaksztat, S., Goldan, L., & Gross, C. (2021, Dezember).
Explaining employment sector choices of doctoral graduates in Germany. Vortrag auf der Tagung (Re)connecting, (Re)building: Higher Education in Transformative Times, Society for Research into Higher Education (SRHE), London, United Kingdom.

Challenges in estimating job adequacy in samples with heterogeneous levels of education.

Lachenmaier, H. (2021, November).
Challenges in estimating job adequacy in samples with heterogeneous levels of education. Vortrag auf dem Workshop Vertical and Horizontal (Mis)match among Highly Qualified – Measurement Issues, Determinants and Consequences, DZHW Research Cluster "Returns to Tertiary Education", Hannover.

JobReq - An instrument for measuring job contents based on knowledge work.

Euler, T. (2021, November).
JobReq - An instrument for measuring job contents based on knowledge work. Vortrag auf dem Workshop Vertical and Horizontal (Mis)match Among Highly Qualified - Measurement Issues, Determinants and Consequences, DZHW Research Cluster "Returns to Tertiary Education", Hannover.

Explaining employment sector choices of doctoral graduates in Germany.

Jaksztat, S. (2021, September).
Explaining employment sector choices of doctoral graduates in Germany. Vortrag auf der Tagung „Higher Education and the Labour Market“ (HELM), IAB und DZHW.

Challenging the intuition. Is a same-sex advisor beneficial for doctoral students?

Mühleck, K., & Schwabe, U. (2021, Juni).
Challenging the intuition. Is a same-sex advisor beneficial for doctoral students? Vortrag im Rahmen der Vortragsreihe "Changing Academic Careers", DZHW, Universität Würzburg, LCSS, Universität Hannover, Hannover (online).

Changing Academic Careers Lecture Series.

Carstensen, J., Euler, T., Fabian, G., Goldan, L., Grüttner, M., ... & Schwabe, U. (2021, Juni).
Workshop Changing Academic Careers Lecture Series, DZHW, Universität Würzburg, LCSS, Universität Hannover, Hannover (online).

Perspektiven des Forschungsclusters Bildungserträge – Inhaltliches Update 2020 und Planung für 2021.

Carstensen, J., Euler, T., Goldan, L., Grüttner, M., Güleryüz, D., ... & Schwabe, U. (2020, November).
Workshop Perspektiven des Forschungsclusters Bildungserträge – Inhaltliches Update 2020 und Planung für 2021 Workshop des Forschungsclusters "Erträge tertiärer Bildung", DZHW, Hannover.

Intergenerational Educational Mobility and Subjective Wellbeing over the Life Course.

Patzina, A., Grüttner, M., & Kratz, F. (2017, September).
Intergenerational Educational Mobility and Subjective Wellbeing over the Life Course. Vortrag auf der International Society of Quality-of-Life Studies Conference 2017, Innsbruck, Österreich.

Intergenerational Educational Mobility and Subjective Wellbeing over the Life Course.

Patzina, A., Grüttner, M., & Kratz, F. (2017, August).
Intergenerational Educational Mobility and Subjective Wellbeing over the Life Course. Vortrag auf dem RC28 Summer Meeting in New York.

Outcomes von Bildung: Nicht-monetäre Bildungserträge.

Grüttner, M. (2017, März).
Outcomes von Bildung: Nicht-monetäre Bildungserträge. Vortrag auf dem 2. Workshop 'Indikatoren der Hochschulbildung' der Student Life Cycle (SLC) Planungsstudie in Hannover.

Intergenerational educational mobility and subjective well-being over the life course.

Grüttner, M., & Patzina, A. (2017, Februar).
Intergenerational educational mobility and subjective well-being over the life course. Vortrag auf dem Forschungsseminar des DZHW und des Lehrstuhls für empirische Hochschul- und Wissenschaftsforschung in Wolfburg.
Conferences

Changing Academic Careers II Lecture Series.

Carstensen, J., Euler, T., Fabian, G., Gäckle, S., Goldan, L., ... & Schwabe, U. (2022, Juni/Juli).
Workshop Changing Academic Careers II Lecture Series, DZHW, Universität Würzburg, LCSS, Universität Hannover, Hannover (online).

Vertical and Horizontal (Mis)match Among Highly Qualified - Measurement Issues, Determinants and Consequences.

Carstensen, J., Euler, T., Fabian, G., Goldan, L., Grüttner, M., ... & Schwabe, U. (2021, November).
Vertical and Horizontal (Mis)match Among Highly Qualified - Measurement Issues, Determinants and Consequences, DZHW Research Cluster "Returns to Tertiary Education", DZHW Hannover.

Changing Academic Careers Lecture Series.

Carstensen, J., Euler, T., Fabian, G., Goldan, L., Grüttner, M., ... & Schwabe, U. (2021, Juni).
Workshop Changing Academic Careers Lecture Series, DZHW, Universität Würzburg, LCSS, Universität Hannover, Hannover (online).

Perspektiven des Forschungsclusters Bildungserträge – Inhaltliches Update 2020 und Planung für 2021.

Carstensen, J., Euler, T., Goldan, L., Grüttner, M., Güleryüz, D., ... & Schwabe, U. (2020, November).
Workshop Perspektiven des Forschungsclusters Bildungserträge – Inhaltliches Update 2020 und Planung für 2021 Workshop des Forschungsclusters "Erträge tertiärer Bildung", DZHW, Hannover.

Higher Education and Civic Participation.

Carstensen, J., Euler, T., Grüttner, M., Güleryüz, D., Mühleck, K., Oelker, S. & Schwabe, U. (2019, November).
Higher Education and Civic Participation. Workshop des Forschungsclusters " Erträge tertiärer Bildung " , DZHW, Hannover.

Head of Research cluster

Ulrike Schwabe
Ulrike Schwabe Head of Research cluster +49 511 450670-123
Nancy Kracke
Dr. Nancy Kracke Head of Research cluster 0341 962765-35

Members

Dr. Johann Carstensen Dr. Thorsten Euler Gregor Fabian Stefanie Gäckle Frederike Gerdes Dr. Michael Grüttner Dr. Björn Huß Dr. Steffen Jaksztat Louisa Köppen Dr. Kai Mühleck Dr. Jessica Ordemann Mareike Rußmann Fabian Trennt