Roberto Cruz Romero

Roberto Cruz Romero

Research Area Research System and Science Dynamics
Researcher
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Roberto Cruz Romero studied Arts and Graphic Design at the Universidad de Costa Rica, where he obtained his BA and Licentiate’s degreees (2007 – 2012). From 2011 to 2014 he completed his BA in Political Science at the same university. He worked as a research assistant and, later, as a research associate at the policy think tank PROSIC (Knowledge and Information Society Programme), where he also adviced the Knowledge Sharing Programme (KSP) oft he Korean Development Institute (KDI) on science and technology human resources. Roberto moved to Germany in 2018 to obtain his MA degree from the Leuphana Universität Lüneburg (2018 – 2020), which he focused on the empirical relation of transparency and economic performance. As of 2020 he is a doctoral candidate at the Universität Leipzig, further researching the institutional determinants of transparency in a comparative perspective. Since 2022 he joined the DZHW as a research associate in the indi:oa project, where he collaborates with the empirical evaluation of open access bibliometric data.

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Projects

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Innovation via Open Access? A study on the effects of the policy-supported open access transformation in national innovation processes (INNOA)
Publications

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The Many Roads to Transparency: A Typology of Topics and Varieties in the Transparency Literature.

Cruz Romero, R. (2023).
The Many Roads to Transparency: A Typology of Topics and Varieties in the Transparency Literature. Revista Española de la Transparencia, 18(3), 293-329. https://doi.org/10.51915/ret.286

Defining Transparency: A Functional Approach.

Cruz Romero, R. (2023).
Defining Transparency: A Functional Approach. JeDEM - EJournal of EDemocracy and Open Government, 15(1), 219-242. https://doi.org/10.29379/jedem.v15i1.714
Abstract

This reflection piece seeks to tackle this blurriness and advance the concept’s analytical precision by presenting and discussing transparency’s main dimensions, as well as its framing within the scholarly body of good governance, democracy, and development. To do so, the reflection paper presents a novel approach; to define transparency in the form of a function (which places transparency in relation to, and as a function) of its two constituting dimensions: a) information (timely and qualitative), and b) accountability mechanisms (namely, a free media environment and legitimate accountability channels).

Blurry Access: A Systematic Review of Transparency Literature.

Cruz Romero, R. (2022).
Blurry Access: A Systematic Review of Transparency Literature. Proceedings of the 26th International Conference on Science, Technology and Innovation Indicators (STI 2022).
Abstract

This review of the transparency literature has shown the evolution of the field through the prism of bibliographic and methodological data. In doing so, we have shed light into underlying disparities that go in line with arguments of structural problems and historical relations in socio-political contexts. We have highlighted the irony of the field in researching a topic that, due to determinants beyond the control of scholars (though OA policies may slowly generate a structural change), is in itself little transparent. The blurriness of the state of research in transparency and accountability helps us to address the overall debate of academic production in a critical manner, engaging with issues such as publishing and funding.

Digital governance: A proposal analysis for Costa Rica [Gobernanza digital en Costa Rica: un análisis de propuestas].

Cruz Romero, R. (2017).
Digital governance: A proposal analysis for Costa Rica [Gobernanza digital en Costa Rica: un análisis de propuestas]. e-Ciencias de la Informacion, 8(1), 1-18.
Abstract

This article aims to provide a comprehensive look at recent proposals of digital governance in Costa Rica, from its institutional design, specifically regarding the ruling entity of the sector. This will be achieved through a documentary review, as well as following a process-tracing method. Then, the article will focus on presenting the national experience with respect of that of the international benchmarks on the subject. Conclusively, it will provide a series of recommendations from the best practices observed in successful institutions in the field of digital Government, applicable to the Costa Rican case given its low success level regarding the country’s institutionalization of a Digital Government.

Internet politics Towards a social networking typology - Costa Rican municipal elections analysis.

Cruz Romero, R. (2017).
Internet politics Towards a social networking typology - Costa Rican municipal elections analysis. In IEEE (Hrsg.), Proceedings from International Conference on Information Society (I-Society 2016) (S. 149-154). Dublin, Ireland: IEEE.
Abstract

By weighing data extracted during the 2016 municipal election in Costa Rica from local-level political parties' Facebook pages the research elaborates an analysis based on the mobilization - normalization theses. From that perspective, the paper identifies the traits that characterize each party's communicational emphasis, specifically on whether such sites promote or limit deliberative behaviors amongst each page's subscriber/follower. This content taxonomy displays the kind of traits each content type signifies in terms of political (and digital) engagement. This typology presents three major categories: Informative parties, Self-promotional parties and Interactive-driven parties.

Politics 2.0 ICTs in Costa Rica's 2014 Presidential Campaign.

Cruz Romero, R. (2016).
Politics 2.0 ICTs in Costa Rica's 2014 Presidential Campaign. In IEEE (Hrsg.), Proceedings from 2015 International Conference on Information Society (i-Society) (S. 115-120). London, UK: IEEE.
Abstract

This study focuses on the contraposition of the mobilizing and normalizing theses, in its aim to demonstrate that social networks are a valid source for electoral political processes analysis. Therefore, the research focuses on the dynamics generated by the major presidential candidates in Costa Rica, during the 2013-2014 electoral campaign, in its official Facebook profiles, by assessing each candidate's communication, interaction and, finally, mobilization capabilities as from these virtual spaces. Such data are complemented and contrasted with national opinion polls results, as well as the final election results.

Presentations

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Transparency, Participation and Deliberation: A Conceptual Framework to Improve Democratic Governance.

Cruz Romero, R. (2023, September).
Transparency, Participation and Deliberation: A Conceptual Framework to Improve Democratic Governance. Vortrag auf der Konferenz ECPR General Conference, European Consortium for Political Research, Prague, Czech Republic.
Abstract

The article reviews key elements in the participatory and deliberative democracy literature to stress crucial shortcomings of current governance designs which have shown that neither representation, nor deliberative-participation signify incontestable dimensions of modern democracy. With the help of key examples of transparent and inclusive governance, a conceptual framework based on transparency and accountability is presented to problematize the need to (re-)make democratic structures more in line with its normative principles. This article contributes to the larger debate on deliberative-participatory democracy offering an analytical framework based on the social and political need for transparency.

Non-Indexed References in Small Open Access Journals: A Hidden Scientific Discourse?

Cruz Romero, R., & Stahlschmidt, S. (2023, Juli).
Non-Indexed References in Small Open Access Journals: A Hidden Scientific Discourse? Poster auf der Konferenz ISSI 2023, International Society for Informetrics and Scientometrics (ISSI), Indiana University, Bloomington, Indiana, USA.
Abstract

This poster shows specific bibliometric data highlighting differences and similarities between journals’ references indexed in the Web of Science (WoS) and Scopus and those that are not. Specifically, this contribution looks at small publishers and their respective journals along the open/closed access formats. The goal is to problematize and assess the visibility and meaning of literature being cited in indexed journals against the literature not listed in these databases. This can shed light into the scientific practices and narratives of different academic disciplines that are defined more nationally or internationally.

Open Access Small Publishers - indi:oa Preliminary Presentation.

Cruz Romero, R. (2022, Oktober).
Open Access Small Publishers - indi:oa Preliminary Presentation. Vortrag im Rahmen des internen Kolloquiums DZHW, DZHW, Berlin.

Blurry Access: A Bibliographic Analysis of Transparency Literature.

Cruz Romero, R. (2022, September).
Blurry Access: A Bibliographic Analysis of Transparency Literature. Vortrag im Rahmen der Higher Education Research and Science Studies Summer School (HERSS) 2022, Dortmund.

Blurry Access: A Bibliographic Analysis of Transparency Literature.

Cruz Romero, R. (2022, September).
Blurry Access: A Bibliographic Analysis of Transparency Literature. Vortrag auf der Konferenz 26th International Conference on Science, Technology and Innovation Indicators (STI 2022), Granada, Spanien.

" What's in a number? " - Die Bedeutung bibliometrischer Indikatoren als Bewertungsgrundlage von OA-Publikationsangeboten.

Cruz Romero, R. (2022, August).
"What's in a number?" - Die Bedeutung bibliometrischer Indikatoren als Bewertungsgrundlage von OA-Publikationsangeboten. Vortrag im Rahmen der Open Access Talks, open-access.network.

One Idea and Many Approaches: A Systematic Review of Transparency Literature.

Cruz Romero, R. (2022, Juni).
One Idea and Many Approaches: A Systematic Review of Transparency Literature. Poster auf der Konferenz PolMeth 22, European Political Methodology Association, Hamburg.