Research cluster: Mobility and Migration-Specific Inequalities

Start of the project: 01-Feb-2021

At the beginning of 2021, the former research cluster "Mobility of the Highly Skilled" has positioned itself on a broader base content and personnel wise. The previous focus on the spatial mobility of students and graduates will be supplemented by research perspectives that take inequalities in access to various educational options as well as heterogeneous educational and labour market outcomes depending on migration background into account. In addition, the cluster is expanding its content to include the topics of virtual and cognitive mobility while it continues to pursue the goal of examining theoretical and methodological approaches to mobility and migration research and their possible applications in higher education and science research.

In the coming years, the role of migration-specific differences at the transition to higher education, Master programmes, the doctorate and the non-academic labour market will be examined.

  • Do people with a migration background have higher educational aspirations at these transitions? How is this explainable?
  • Do the returns of academic qualification vary depending on migration background? Can academic education balance (expected) discrimination in the labour market?
  • Are there any differences between international students (with and without refugee experience) and students with a migration background who obtained their higher education entrance qualification in Germany?

With regard to scientists, virtual and cognitive mobility are examined as new forms of non-spatial mobility. While virtual mobility refers to the transfer of information with the help of information and communication technologies, cognitive mobility can be understood as a change of subject or content-related scientific focus in the course of an academic career.

  • How can forms of virtual and cognitive mobility be empirically measured and analysed?
  • How do spatial, virtual and cognitive mobility of scientists relate to one another?

At the level of higher education institutions, the development of programmes targeted at international students and those with refugee experience raises the question of migration-specific challenges and the fit between needs and supply.

  • Which support services exist for students of varying migration backgrounds? How do students assess the fit between their needs and available support structures?
  • Which organisational characteristics influence the establishment of diversity offices?

In addition, research on networks of transnational student mobility is carried on. Thereby, special focus will be laid on the role political-institutional factors and gender-specific differences play for the observed patterns of transnational student mobility.

  • Do the degree of academic freedom and economic inequality, human and women's rights and the stability of political institutions impact on the attractiveness of a country as a study destination?
  • Does the gender of internationally mobile students influence the decision for a place of study?

The cluster bundles publication and lecture activities on the topics of mobility and migration-specific inequalities within the DZHW and additionally promotes cooperation with external researchers.

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Publications

Career start abroad: The implications of graduate migration for social inequality.

Witte, N., Stawarz, N., & Netz, N. (2023).
Career start abroad: The implications of graduate migration for social inequality. Research in Social Stratification and Mobility, 83, 100763. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rssm.2023.100763

Durable supports for refugees in higher education through resisting short-termism and organisational memory loss: illustrative cases from Australia and Germany.

Berg, J., Grüttner, M., & Baker, S. (2022).
Durable supports for refugees in higher education through resisting short-termism and organisational memory loss: illustrative cases from Australia and Germany. Journal of Higher Education Policy and Management (online first). https://doi.org/10.1080/1360080X.2022.2129316
Abstract

Recently, an increasing number of students from refugee and asylum-seeking backgrounds (SRABs) entering universities in settlement countries such as Australia and Germany have necessitated the establishment of a variety of supports. However, to date, little attention has been paid to the organisational conditions surrounding such supports. This study thus examined these conditions through the conceptual lens of organisational memory loss. Based on the two illustrative cases of Australia and Germany, it was described how building durable and responsive supports for SRABs is undermined by structural, ideological, and temporal imperatives that erode the possibilities for a sharable organisational memory.

Vignettenexperimente in der Hochschul- und Wissenschaftsforschung: Konstruktion, Potenziale und Fallstricke illustriert am Beispiel einer Professor*innenbefragung.

Petzold, K., & Netz, N. (2022).
Vignettenexperimente in der Hochschul- und Wissenschaftsforschung: Konstruktion, Potenziale und Fallstricke illustriert am Beispiel einer Professor*innenbefragung. In G. Brandt & S. de Vogel (Hrsg.), Survey-Methoden in der Hochschulforschung (S. 153-199). Wiesbaden: Springer. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-658-36921-7_7

Why do women more often intend to study abroad than men?

Cordua, F., & Netz, N. (2022).
Why do women more often intend to study abroad than men? Higher Education, 83(5), 1079-1101.

International or refugee students? Shifting organisational discourses on refugee students at German higher education organisations.

Berg, J. (2022).
International or refugee students? Shifting organisational discourses on refugee students at German higher education organisations. International Studies in Sociology of Education (online first). https://doi.org/10.1080/09620214.2022.2048264
Abstract

Following the refugee influx of 2015 and 2016, many German higher education organisations (HEOs) responded with support programmes for refugee students. In this context, refugees became formally and discursively differentiated from other international students. During later stages of the programmes, this differentiation became blurred, and discourse surrounding refugee students partly shifted back to framing them as international students, which is also represented in further support programme development. Based on a systems theoretical framework, this paper investigates the shifting organisational discourse on refugee students within the context of functional needs and structural changes at German HEOs.

Responsivität deutscher Hochschulen in der postmigrantischen Gesellschaft: Am Beispiel des Hochschulzugangs von Geflüchteten.

Grüttner, M., Beigang, S., Schröder, S., Berg, J., & Kleimann, B. (2021).
Responsivität deutscher Hochschulen in der postmigrantischen Gesellschaft: Am Beispiel des Hochschulzugangs von Geflüchteten. ZDfm – Zeitschrift für Diversitätsforschung und -management, 6(2), 191-196. https://doi.org/10.3224/zdfm.v6i2.07

Who benefits most from studying abroad? A conceptual and empirical overview.

Netz, N. (2021).
Who benefits most from studying abroad? A conceptual and empirical overview. Higher Education, 82(6), 1049-1069. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10734-021-00760-1

Special Issue “Heterogeneous effects of studying abroad”.

Netz, N. (Hrsg.) (2021).
Special Issue “Heterogeneous effects of studying abroad”. Higher Education, 82(6). Dordrecht: Springer.

Does studying abroad influence graduates’ wages? A literature review.

Netz, N., & Cordua, F. (2021).
Does studying abroad influence graduates’ wages? A literature review. Journal of International Students , 11(4), 768-789.

Expectations, experiences and anticipated outcomes of supporting refugee students in Germany – a systems theoretical analysis of organizational semantics.

Berg, J. (2021).
Expectations, experiences and anticipated outcomes of supporting refugee students in Germany – a systems theoretical analysis of organizational semantics. In N. Harrison & G. Atherton (Hrsg.), Marginalised Communities in Higher Education - Disadvantage, Mobility and Indigeneity (S. 97-118). London: Routledge.

Welchen Einfluss hat internationale Mobilität auf wissenschaftliche Karrieren? Ein Forschungsüberblick.

Netz, N. (2021).
Welchen Einfluss hat internationale Mobilität auf wissenschaftliche Karrieren? Ein Forschungsüberblick. (DAAD Forschung kompakt). Bonn: DAAD. https://doi.org/10.46685/DAADStudien.2021.01
Presentations

Who benefits most from studying abroad? An overview of inequalities in study abroad participation and outcomes.

Netz, N. (2023, Januar).
Who benefits most from studying abroad? An overview of inequalities in study abroad participation and outcomes. Vortrag im Rahmen des Online-Seminars “International Students And University-To-Work Transition”, Society for Research into Higher Education (SRHE).

Study abroad experience and the gender wage gap.

Netz, N., Peter, F., & Cordua, F. (2022, Dezember).
Study abroad experience and the gender wage gap. Vortrag im Rahmen der 2022 SRHE International Research Conference "Mobilities in Higher Education", Society for Research into Higher Education (SRHE).

The impact of Covid-19 on social inequalities in international student mobility.

Almeida, J., Krzaklewska, E., Netz, N., & Nika, D. (2022, Dezember).
The impact of Covid-19 on social inequalities in international student mobility. Vortrag im Rahmen der 2022 SRHE International Research Conference "Mobilities in Higher Education", Society for Research into Higher Education (SRHE).

Cognitive Mobility in the Sciences: Social, Technological and Cultural Dynamics.

Blümel, C., & Grüttner, M. (2022, November).
Workshop Cognitive Mobility in the Sciences: Social, Technological and Cultural Dynamics, DZHW, Hannover.

Study abroad experience and the gender wage gap.

Netz, N., Peter, F., & Cordua, F. (2022, Oktober).
Study abroad experience and the gender wage gap. Vortrag im Rahmen der 2022 Conference of the European Network on International Student Mobility (ENIS), Tartu, Estland.

The impact of Covid-19 on social inequalities in international student mobility: A systematic literature review.

Krzaklewska, E., Almeida, J., Netz, N., & Jokila, S. (2022, Oktober).
The impact of Covid-19 on social inequalities in international student mobility: A systematic literature review. Vortrag im Rahmen der 2022 Conference of the European Network on International Student Mobility (ENIS), Tartu, Estland.

The impact of studying abroad on graduates’ careers. An overview of findings, methodological challenges and solutions.

Netz, N. (2022, September).
The impact of studying abroad on graduates’ careers. An overview of findings, methodological challenges and solutions. Vortrag im Rahmen des Workshops "Research on International Education", Academic Cooperation Association (ACA), Brüssel.

Was zählt wirklich für ein Auslandsstudium: Individuelle Merkmale oder Opportunitätsstrukturen? Eine Mehrebenenanalyse zu den Effekten nationaler Internationalisierungsprogramme auf die Auslandsmobilität japanischer Studierender.

Entrich, S., Netz, N., & Matsuoka, R. (2022, August).
Was zählt wirklich für ein Auslandsstudium: Individuelle Merkmale oder Opportunitätsstrukturen? Eine Mehrebenenanalyse zu den Effekten nationaler Internationalisierungsprogramme auf die Auslandsmobilität japanischer Studierender. Vortrag im Rahmen des 18. Deutschsprachigen Japanologentags, Heinrich Heine Universität Düsseldorf.

Beeinflusst studienbezogene Auslandsmobilität das spätere Arbeitseinkommen?

Netz, N. (2022).
Beeinflusst studienbezogene Auslandsmobilität das spätere Arbeitseinkommen? Stellungnahme im Rahmen der Reihe "DAAD Forschung kompakt", DAAD, Bonn.

What effects does international mobility have on scientists’ careers? Evidence from a systematic literature review.

Netz, N. (2022, Juli).
What effects does international mobility have on scientists’ careers? Evidence from a systematic literature review. Vortrag im Rahmen des EuroScience Open Forum (ESOF), Leiden.

Welchen Einfluss hat internationale Mobilität auf wissenschaftliche Karrieren?

Netz, N. (2022, Juli).
Welchen Einfluss hat internationale Mobilität auf wissenschaftliche Karrieren? Keynote im Rahmen des Young Researchers Day, Katholische Universität Eichstätt-Ingolstadt (KU).

The role of institutional features for inequalities in study abroad participation: Evidence from Japan.

Steve, E., Netz, N., & Matsuoka, R. (2022, Juni/Juli).
The role of institutional features for inequalities in study abroad participation: Evidence from Japan. Vortrag im Rahmen der 19th IMISCOE Annual Conference, Oslo Metropolitan University.

International Academics at German Universities: From Postdoc to Professorship? A Qualitative Research Study.

Jaudzims, S. (2022, Juni).
International Academics at German Universities: From Postdoc to Professorship? A Qualitative Research Study. Vortrag im Rahmen der Vortragsreihe „Changing Academic Careers II" , DZHW, Hannover.

Exiled Scholars and international Postdoctoral Researchers in the German Higher Education System.

Grüttner, M. (2022, Juni).
Session Exiled Scholars and international Postdoctoral Researchers in the German Higher Education System im Rahmen der Changing Academic Careers Lecture Series, DZHW, Hannover.

How important is international experience for becoming a tenured professor? Evidence from a factorial survey.

Netz, N., & Petzold, K. (2022, Mai).
How important is international experience for becoming a tenured professor? Evidence from a factorial survey. Vortrag im Rahmen des Academia Europaea HERCulES Symposiums “The Internationalization of Higher Education Institutions”, Uppsala University.

Connecting research and practice in international student mobility: Examples, benefits, challenges, solutions.

Netz, N. (2022, April).
Connecting research and practice in international student mobility: Examples, benefits, challenges, solutions. Impulsvortrag im Rahmen des Webinars "Connecting research and practice in international student mobility", European Network on International Student Mobility (ENIS).

The impact of studying abroad on graduates’ careers: What we know and what we would like to know.

Netz, N. (2022, April).
The impact of studying abroad on graduates’ careers: What we know and what we would like to know. Keynote im Rahmen des Webinars "Does studying abroad pay off in the labour market?", European Network on International Student Mobility (ENIS).

How (wo)men evaluate (wo)men. Gendered gender biases in the assessment of applicants for professorships?

Rusconi, A., Solga, H., & Netz, N. (2022, April).
How (wo)men evaluate (wo)men. Gendered gender biases in the assessment of applicants for professorships? Vortrag im Rahmen der RC28 Spring Conference "Social Stratification and Social Policy for a Post-Covid19 World", London School of Economics and Political Science (LSE).

Welche Rolle spielen physische und virtuelle Mobilität für den Zugang zur Professur?

Netz, N. (2022, März).
Welche Rolle spielen physische und virtuelle Mobilität für den Zugang zur Professur? Vortrag im Rahmen der DAAD-Wissenschaftswerkstatt, DAAD, Bonn.

Working Group Meetings.

Netz, N., & Van Mol, C. (2022, Januar).
Workshop Working Group Meetings, European Network on International Student Mobility (ENIS), Online.

Systematic reviews in the social sciences. Conceptual and practical notes.

Netz, N. (2022, Januar).
Systematic reviews in the social sciences. Conceptual and practical notes. Vortrag auf dem Workshop Online Training School on Thematic Reviews, European Network on International Student Mobility (ENIS).

Online Training School on Thematic Reviews.

Netz, N., & Van Mol, C. (2022, Januar).
Workshop Online Training School on Thematic Reviews, European Network on International Student Mobility (ENIS), Online.

International school-to-work transitions: The payoff to graduates’ international labour mobility and its social inequality implications.

Witte, N., Stawarz, N., & Netz, N. (2021, Oktober).
International school-to-work transitions: The payoff to graduates’ international labour mobility and its social inequality implications. Vortrag auf der Konferenz ECSR Annual Conference 2021.

How does international student mobility influence the gender wage gap?

Netz, N., Cordua, F., & Peter, F. (2021, Oktober).
How does international student mobility influence the gender wage gap? Vortrag auf der Konferenz CIDER-LERN Conference 2021, Leibniz Geschäftsstelle, Berlin.

Do gendered student mobility flows vary by country of origin? An overview and agenda for future research.

Cordua, F., & Vögtle, E. M. (2021, September).
Do gendered student mobility flows vary by country of origin? An overview and agenda for future research. Vortrag auf dem Workshop Methodological Innovations in Research on Spatial Mobility: Potentials and Pitfalls, Forschungscluster Mobilität und migrationsspezifische Ungleichheiten und Empirische Methoden der Hochschul- und Wissenschaftsforschung, Hannover.
Abstract

In many countries across the globe scholars report an over representation of women in TSM (e.g. Hurst 2019; Salisbury et al. 2010; Shirley 2006; Simpson and Bailey 2020; Thirolf 2014; Tompkins et al. 2017 Van Mol 2021, Holloway et al. 2012, Sondhi and King 2017). Gender roles are key to explain this imbalance: educational performance, interest profiles, labour market orientation and anticipated discrimination differ between girls and boys, women and men and lead to more female students going abroad. As societal gender roles vary across countries (Guo & Gilbert 2012), the gender specific motivation to study abroad could also depend on the country’s gender (in)equality.

Methodological Innovations in Research on Spatial Mobility: Potentials and Pitfalls.

Netz, N., Vögtle, E. M., Lang, S., Euler, T., & Laska, O. (2021).
Workshop Methodological Innovations in Research on Spatial Mobility: Potentials and Pitfalls, DZHW, Hannover.

Transnational student mobility from a network perspective. An overview of recent developments.

Vögtle, E. (2021).
Transnational student mobility from a network perspective. An overview of recent developments. Vortrag auf dem Kolloquium Wissenschaftswerkstatt, DAAD, Bonn, Deutschland.
Abstract

While the important role of institutions and trust for economic transactions is well-acknowledged in institutional economics, the effects of appropriate institutions, historical legacies, and cultural similarities such as language and religion has not yet been systematically analysed in research on transnational student mobility. In our research, we analyse the phenomenon of transnational student mobility by combining and testing aspects of these different perspectives. We focus on outbound students and analyse what determines whether a particular country receives a high proportion of international students.

Why do women more often intend to study abroad than men?

Cordua, F., & Netz, N. (2021, September).
Why do women more often intend to study abroad than men? Vortrag auf der Konferenz Sociological knowledges for alternative futures (15th Conference of the European Sociological Association), Barcelona.

What role do physical and virtual mobility play for academic career success? Evidence from an experiment with university professors.

Netz, N., & Petzold, K. (2021, September).
What role do physical and virtual mobility play for academic career success? Evidence from an experiment with university professors. Vortrag auf der Konferenz Sociological knowledges for alternative futures (15th Conference of the European Sociological Association), Barcelona.

Why We Should Take Care More About Interaction Effects For Exploring The Mechanisms Of Inequality In Education. Ethnic Effects at the Transition to Higher Education in Germany.

Sudheimer, S., Mentges, H., & Buchholz, S. (2021, September).
Why We Should Take Care More About Interaction Effects For Exploring The Mechanisms Of Inequality In Education. Ethnic Effects at the Transition to Higher Education in Germany. Vortrag auf der Konferenz 15th ESA Conference 2021 - Sociological Knowledges for Alternative Futures, European Sociological Association, Barcelona, Spain.

The ‘Global South’ in the transnational student mobility network. Effects of institutional (in)stability, reputation, post-colonial ties, and cultural homophily.

Vögtle, E. (2021, Juli).
The ‘Global South’ in the transnational student mobility network. Effects of institutional (in)stability, reputation, post-colonial ties, and cultural homophily. Vortrag auf der Konferenz IPSA Virtual 26th World Congress of Political Scientists, International Political Science Association, Universidade Nova de Lisboa, Portugal.
Abstract

While the important role of institutions and trust for economic transactions is well-acknowledged in institutional economics, the effects of appropriate institutions, historical legacies, and cultural similarities such as language and religion has not yet been systematically analysed in research on transnational student mobility. In our research, we analyse the phenomenon of transnational student mobility by combining and testing aspects of these different perspectives. We focus on outbound students and analyse what determines whether a particular country receives a high proportion of international students.

Fördert Auslandsmobilität die wissenschaftliche Karriere?

Netz, N. (2021).
Fördert Auslandsmobilität die wissenschaftliche Karriere? Stellungnahme im Rahmen der Reihe „DAAD Forschung kompakt“, DAAD, Bonn.

Fördert Auslandsmobilität die wissenschaftliche Karriere?

Netz, N. (2021).
Fördert Auslandsmobilität die wissenschaftliche Karriere? Stellungnahme im Rahmen der DAAD-Initiative Forschung kompakt, Bonn.

The ‘Global South’ in the transnational student mobility network. Effects of institutional (in)stability, reputation, post-colonial ties, and cultural homophily.

Vögtle, E. (2021, Juni).
The ‘Global South’ in the transnational student mobility network. Effects of institutional (in)stability, reputation, post-colonial ties, and cultural homophily. Vortrag auf der Konferenz 27th International Conference of Europeanists, Council for European Studies, Reykjavík, Island.
Abstract

While the important role of institutions and trust for economic transactions is a well-acknowledged in institutional economics, the effects of appropriate institutions, historical legacies, and cultural similarities such as language and religion has not yet been systematically analysed in research on transnational student mobility. In our research, we start from the assumption that the more functional institutions of potential host countries are, the more attractive they are for foreign students. Using aggregate data, we focus on the attributes of countries and the relationship between them to explain patterns of international student exchange.

Graduates’ labor market entry abroad. The payoff to international early career migration.

Witte, N., Stawarz, N., & Netz, N. (2021, Juni).
Graduates’ labor market entry abroad. The payoff to international early career migration. Vortrag auf der Konferenz “Accumulation and compensation of inequalities” (RC28 Spring Meeting), Universität Turku.

The ‘Global South’ in the network of transnational student mobility. Effects of institutional stability, reputation, post-colonial ties, and cultural homophily.

Vögtle, E. (2021, März).
The ‘Global South’ in the network of transnational student mobility. Effects of institutional stability, reputation, post-colonial ties, and cultural homophily. Vortrag auf der Tagung Aktuelle Entwicklungen der Netzwerkforschung und Computational Social Science, Mark Lutter, Jan Riebling, Nico Sonntag und Linus Weidner, Universität Wuppertal, Deutschland.
Abstract

Which role does institutional fragility or stability play for the attractiveness of a country as study destination? How does this interact with socio-economic conditions? Is homophily between countries still influential for transnational student mobility if we analyze a global sample without any pre-selection of countries? Are colonial ties between countries still influential for the direction and intensity of student exchange networks?

Conferences

Determinants, experiences, and outcomes of international student mobility in the wake of the Covid-19 pandemic.

Netz, N., & Van Mol, C. (2022, Dezember).
Determinants, experiences, and outcomes of international student mobility in the wake of the Covid-19 pandemic. Organisation eines Symposiums auf der 2022 SRHE International Research Conference "Mobilities in Higher Education", Society for Research into Higher Education (SRHE).

Cognitive Mobility in the Sciences: Social, Technological and Cultural Dynamics.

Blümel, C., & Grüttner, M. (2022, November).
Workshop Cognitive Mobility in the Sciences: Social, Technological and Cultural Dynamics, DZHW, Hannover.

Exiled Scholars and international Postdoctoral Researchers in the German Higher Education System.

Grüttner, M. (2022, Juni).
Session Exiled Scholars and international Postdoctoral Researchers in the German Higher Education System im Rahmen der Changing Academic Careers Lecture Series, DZHW, Hannover.

Working Group Meetings.

Netz, N., & Van Mol, C. (2022, Januar).
Workshop Working Group Meetings, European Network on International Student Mobility (ENIS), Online.

Online Training School on Thematic Reviews.

Netz, N., & Van Mol, C. (2022, Januar).
Workshop Online Training School on Thematic Reviews, European Network on International Student Mobility (ENIS), Online.

Methodological Innovations in Research on Spatial Mobility: Potentials and Pitfalls.

Netz, N., Vögtle, E. M., Lang, S., Euler, T., & Laska, O. (2021).
Workshop Methodological Innovations in Research on Spatial Mobility: Potentials and Pitfalls, DZHW, Hannover.

Head of Research cluster

Fine Cordua
Fine Cordua Head of Research cluster +49 511 450670-134
Michael Grüttner
Dr. Michael Grüttner Head of Research cluster +49 511 450670-116
Hanna Mentges
Hanna Mentges Head of Research cluster +49 511 450670-159

Members

Dr. Jana Berg Clemens Blümel Dr. Susanne Jaudzims Jonas Koopmann Dr. Nicolai Netz Lautaro Vilches Hernández Dr. Eva Maria Vögtle