Junior research group: Open science

Start of the project: 01-Aug-2018

One of Open Science’s visions is to increase the quality and efficiency of scientific research by making research data, computer code, and other resources created in the research process, publicly available. Advocates for increased sharing argue that widely sharing those resources is desirable in order to support the reproducibility of research, increase the transparency of the research process, make efficient use of research funding, and enable new innovative forms of research. Critical for the success of this vision is the readiness of research groups to share the resources that they have created.

However, we only have a limited theoretical understanding of what drives the sharing of those resources in different fields of science, and how to explain the variation of forms of sharing across fields. The junior research group is therefore setting out to examine what field-inherent factors influence sharing and to explain how they influence decisions to share.

The theoretical starting point is an understanding of the production of scientific knowledge in research specialities as an integration of local and community-level processes. Research specialities differ in where the boundary between local and community-level processes of knowledge production is drawn. In order to develop a better understanding of field-specific forms of sharing we therefore need to turn our attention to the factors that influence where this boundary is drawn and the role of sharing in the construction of this boundary.

The project employs a mixed-method approach that combines bibliometrics, ethnography, expert interviews, and survey research to determine field-specific sharing rates and develop causal explanations of how the form of knowledge creation influences sharing decisions.

A better understanding of what drives sharing in scientific research and how research specialities differ in this regard will enable the development of more effective policies and incentives for open science that are attuned to field-specific challenges and opportunities.

The project will produce empirical and theoretical insights into the variation of forms of sharing across research specialities. In addition, it aims to innovate approaches to comparative studies of sharing in the sciences by developing methods that capture the variation of relevant properties of forms of knowledge production within and across research specialities.

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Publications

How to interpret algorithmically constructed topical structures of scientific fields? A case study of citation-based mappings of the research specialty of invasion biology.

Held, M., & Velden (2022).
How to interpret algorithmically constructed topical structures of scientific fields? A case study of citation-based mappings of the research specialty of invasion biology. Quantitative Science Studies (online first). https://doi.org/10.1162/qss_a_00194
Abstract

Often, bibliometric mapping studies remain at a very abstract level when assessing the validity or accuracy of the generated maps. In this case study of citation-based mappings of a research specialty, we dig deeper into the topical structures generated by the chosen mapping approaches and examine their correspondence to a sociologically informed understanding of the research specialty in question. Our analysis highlights the variety of types of topical relatedness and epistemic interdependency that citations can stand for. Unless we assume that invasion biology is unique, our analysis suggests that global algorithmic field classification approaches that use citation links indiscriminately may struggle to reconstruct research specialties.

A Case Study of the Epistemic Function of Citations - Implications for Citation-based Science Mapping.

Seitz, C., Schmidt, M., Schwichtenberg, N., & Velden, T. (2021).
A Case Study of the Epistemic Function of Citations - Implications for Citation-based Science Mapping. In W. Glänzel, S. Heeffer, P.-S. Chi, & R. Rousseau (Hrsg.), Proceedings of the 18th International Conference on Scientometrics & Informetrics (S. 1027-1032). Leuven: KU Leuven / International Society for Scientometrics and Informetrics (I.S.S.I.).
Abstract

The use of citations as indicators of topical relatedness of publications is common in the algorithmic mapping of the structure of science. References to source documents, however, may serve a variety of epistemic functions, and hence represent rather different dimensions of topical relatedness, such as the research methods used, the empirical objects studied, the theoretical resources build on, the research questions pursued, or the external motivation for and relevance of the work. In this case study, we explore the diversity in topical dimensions along which publications are linked in citation networks, by coding the epistemic function of in-text citations. [...]

Vertrauen in Wissen. Gedanken zu einer vergleichenden ethnographischen Feldstudie zum Verständnis der kulturtypischen Konstruktion von Un-/Gewissheit in der Produktion wissenschaftlichen Wissens.

Schwichtenberg, N. (2021).
Vertrauen in Wissen. Gedanken zu einer vergleichenden ethnographischen Feldstudie zum Verständnis der kulturtypischen Konstruktion von Un-/Gewissheit in der Produktion wissenschaftlichen Wissens. In O. Dimbath & M. Pfadenhauer (Hrsg.), Gewissheit. Beiträge und Debatten zum 3. Sektionskongress der Wissenssoziologie (S. 293-305). Weinheim Basel: Beltz Juventa.

The Open Innovation in Science Research Field: A Collaborative Conceptualisation Approach.

Beck, S., Bergenholtz, C., Bogers, M., Brasseur, T., Conradsen, M. L., Di Marco, D., ... & Xu, S. M. (2020).
The Open Innovation in Science Research Field: A Collaborative Conceptualisation Approach. Industry and Innovation. https://doi.org/10.1080/13662716.2020.1792274

How to interpret algorithmically constructed topical structures of research specialties? A case study comparing an internal and an external mapping of the topical structure of invasion biology.

Held, M., & Velden, T. (2019).
How to interpret algorithmically constructed topical structures of research specialties? A case study comparing an internal and an external mapping of the topical structure of invasion biology. In Catalano, G., Daraio, C., Gregori, M., Moed, H. F., & Ruocco, G (Hrsg.) Proceedings of the 17th Conference of the International Society for Scientometrics and Informetrics (ISSI 2019), Vol. 2, (S. 1933-1939). Edizioni Efesto. ISBN 978-88-3381-118-5.

Exploration of reproducibility issues in scientometric research.

Velden, T., Hinze, S. Scharnhorst, A. Schneider, J.W., & Waltman, L. (2018).
Exploration of reproducibility issues in scientometric research. In STI 2018 Conference Proceedings. Proceedings of the 23rd International Conference on Science and Technology Indicators. 12-14 September 2018, Leiden, The Netherlands.
Presentations

Giants or dwarfs on stilts? Scientific trust within research specialties.

Schwichtenberg, N. (2021, Oktober).
Giants or dwarfs on stilts? Scientific trust within research specialties. Vortrag auf der Konferenz Trust in Science, Research group “Trust in information” , High-Performance Computing Center Stuttgart (HLRS) of the University of Stuttgart , Stuttgart, Deutschland.
Abstract

For a long time the scientific production process has been known as resting on the "shoulders of giants" (Merton 1965). But how do scientists know that these giants are actually giants and not dwarfs on stilts? Where do they get their firm footing in science from? How do they know they won't hit hard ground? They do trust in the giants. [...] This paper aims to draw a systematic picture of the role of scientific trust within research specialties. By its field comparative approach it offers a concept of trust for science studies which can be discussed, expanded and modified to apply to further research specialties, disciplines and areas of scientific work.

A case study of the epistemic function of citations - Implications for citation-based science mapping.

Velden, T. (2021, Juli).
A case study of the epistemic function of citations - Implications for citation-based science mapping. Vortrag auf der Konferenz 18th Conference of the International Society for Scientometrics and Informetrics (ISSI 2021), KU Leuven, Leuven, Belgium.
Abstract

The use of citations as indicators of topical relatedness of publications is common in the algorithmic mapping of the structure of science. References to source documents, however, may serve a variety of epistemic functions, and hence represent rather different dimensions of topical relatedness. They may pertain to the research methods used, the empirical objects studied, the theoretical resources build on, the research questions pursued, or the external motivation for and relevance of the work. In this qualitative case study, we explore the diversity in topical dimensions along which publications are linked in citation networks.

Explaining field specific forms of sharing – The influence of epistemic conditions.

Velden, T. (2021, Mai).
Explaining field specific forms of sharing – The influence of epistemic conditions. In E. Barlösius & N. Taubert (Vorsitz), In- and Outside Open Science. auf der Konferenz STS Conference Graz 2021 - Critical lssues In Science, Technology and Society Studies, Annual Conference of the Science Technology and Society Unit of the Institute of Interactive Systems and Data Science of Graz University of Technology, the Inter-University Research Centre for Technology, Work and Culture (IFZ) and the Institute for Advanced Studies of Science, Technology and Society (IAS-STS)., Graz, Österreich.
Abstract

Open science advocates and an increasing number of political stakeholders and research funding agencies encourage researchers to publicly share the various instantiations of scientific knowledge that are generated during the research process, in particular research data, but also computer code, method protocols, or material specimens. Critical for the success of this vision is the readiness of research groups to share those tools and resources that they have created. The study I will present seeks to contribute to a theory of field-specific forms of sharing by looking specifically at the question how sharing decisions are influenced by the epistemic conditions for research in a field.

Field-specific forms of the scientific reception process and reuse decisions.

Schwichtenberg, N. (2020, August).
Field-specific forms of the scientific reception process and reuse decisions. Vortrag auf der EASST/4S 2020 Locating and Timing Matters: Significance and agency of STS in emerging worlds. 18.-21.08.2020, Prague, Czech Republic.

A comparative approach to field-specific forms of sharing.

Velden, T., & Schwichtenberg, N. (2020, August).
A comparative approach to field-specific forms of sharing. Vortrag auf der EASST/4S 2020 Locating and Timing Matters: Significance and agency of STS in emerging worlds, 18.8.-21.08.2020, Prague, Czech Republic.

Fachspezifische Formen von Open Science.

Velden, T. (2020, Juni).
Fachspezifische Formen von Open Science. Vortrag auf dem Treffen der UNIWiND Open Science AG, 16.06.2020.

Vertrauen in Wissen - Gedanken zu einer vergleichenden ethnographischen Feldstudie zum Verständnis der kulturtypischen Konstruktion von Un-/Gewissheit in der Wissensproduktion.

Schwichtenberg, N. (2019, Oktober).
Vertrauen in Wissen - Gedanken zu einer vergleichenden ethnographischen Feldstudie zum Verständnis der kulturtypischen Konstruktion von Un-/Gewissheit in der Wissensproduktion. Vortrag auf dem 3.Kongress der Wissenssoziologie (Arbeitskreis: Ethnographie), 09.-11.10.2019, Koblenz.

Challenges of interpreting topic maps of research specialties: a case study of invasion biology.

Velden, T. (2019, September).
Challenges of interpreting topic maps of research specialties: a case study of invasion biology. Vortrag auf dem Workshop "Topic Construction", Technische Universität Berlin, 19.-20.09.2019, Berlin.

How to interpret algorithmically constructed topical structures of research specialties? A case study comparing an internal and an external mapping of the topical structure of invasion biology.

Velden, T. (2019, September).
How to interpret algorithmically constructed topical structures of research specialties? A case study comparing an internal and an external mapping of the topical structure of invasion biology. Vortrag auf der 17th International Conference of Scientometrics & Infometrics, 02.-09.09.2019, Rome, Italy.

Field Specific Forms of Open Science.

Velden, T. (2019, Mai).
Field Specific Forms of Open Science. Vortrag auf dem 1st Open Innovation in Science (OIS) Research Workshop, 02.-03.05.2019, Vienna, Austria.

Exploration of reproducibility issues in scientometric research.

Velden, T., Hinze, S., Scharnhorst, A., Schneider, J., & Waltman, L. (2018, September).
Exploration of reproducibility issues in scientometric research. Special Track on "Reproducibility in Scientometrics". 23rd International Conference on Science and Technology Indicators (STI 2018), September 12-14, 2018, Leiden, The Netherlands.

Head of Junior research group

Theresa Velden
Dr. Theresa Velden Head +49 30 2064177-51

Members

Nathalie Schwichtenberg